Document
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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
 
____________________________________________________________________________________________
 
FORM 10-Q
 ________________________________________________________

x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018 
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission File Number 000-26058
_________________________________________________________________
 Kforce Inc.
Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter
_________________________________________________________________ 
FLORIDA
59-3264661
State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization
IRS Employer Identification No.

1001 EAST PALM AVENUE, TAMPA, FLORIDA
33605 
Address of principal executive offices
Zip Code
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (813) 552-5000
 _______________________________________________________

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes x   No ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes x   No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “non-accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:
Large accelerated filer
¨
Accelerated filer
x
Non-accelerated filer
¨
(Do not check if a smaller reporting company) 
Smaller reporting company
¨
Emerging growth company
¨
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act.):    Yes  ¨  No  x
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s common stock as of October 29, 2018 was 26,065,231.





KFORCE INC.
QUARTERLY REPORT ON FORM 10-Q FOR THE PERIOD ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2018
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Item 1.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
CAUTIONARY NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
References in this document to “the Registrant,” “Kforce,” “the Company,” “we,” “the Firm,” “management,” “our” or “us” refer to Kforce Inc. and its subsidiaries, except where the context otherwise requires or indicates.
This report, particularly Part I. Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (“MD&A”) and Part II. Item 1A. Risk Factors, and the documents we incorporate into this report contain certain statements that are, or may be deemed to be, forward-looking statements within the meaning of that term in Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and are made in reliance upon the protections provided by such acts for forward-looking statements. Such statements may include, but may not be limited to, projections of financial or operational performance, our beliefs regarding potential government actions or changes in laws and regulations, anticipated costs and benefits of proposed acquisitions, divestitures and investments, effects of interest rate variations, financing needs or plans, estimates concerning the effects of litigation or other disputes, the occurrence of unanticipated expenses, estimates concerning our ability to collect on our trade accounts receivable, developments within the staffing sector including, but not limited to, the penetration rate (the percentage of temporary staffing to total employment) and growth in temporary staffing, a reduction in the supply of consultants and candidates or the Firm’s ability to attract such individuals, estimates concerning goodwill impairment, delays or termination or the failure to obtain awards, task orders or funding under contracts, changes in client demand for Firm services and our ability to adapt to such changes; the entry of new competitors in the market; the ability of the Firm to maintain and attract clients in the face of changing economic or competitive conditions, as well as assumptions as to any of the foregoing and all statements that are not based on historical fact but rather reflect our current expectations concerning future results and events. For a further list and description of various risks, relevant factors and uncertainties that could cause future results or events to differ materially from those expressed or implied in our forward-looking statements, refer to the Risk Factors and MD&A sections. In addition, when used in this discussion, the terms “anticipate,” “assume,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “will,” “may,” “likely,” “could,” “should,” “future” and variations thereof and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements.
Forward-looking statements are inherently subject to risks and uncertainties, some of which cannot be predicted. Future events and actual results could differ materially from those set forth in or underlying the forward-looking statements. Readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking statements contained in this report, which speak only as of the date of this report. Kforce undertakes no obligation to update any forward-looking statements.
2


PART I - FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

KFORCE INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
AND COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AMOUNTS)
 
Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30, 
2018201720182017
Revenue $355,452 $341,053 $1,060,369 $1,015,354 
Direct costs 251,071 236,678 748,317 709,925 
Gross profit 104,381 104,375 312,052 305,429 
Selling, general and administrative expenses 79,771 81,921 246,811 249,105 
Depreciation and amortization 1,947 2,110 5,892 6,213 
Income from operations 22,663 20,344 59,349 50,111 
Other expense, net 1,044 1,364 3,639 3,906 
Income before income taxes 21,619 18,980 55,710 46,205 
Income tax expense 5,442 8,881 14,086 19,060 
Net income 16,177 10,099 41,624 27,145 
Other comprehensive income (loss): 
Change in fair value of interest rate swap, net of tax 110 60 807 (52)
Defined benefit pension plans, net of tax  (278) (287)
Comprehensive income $16,287 $9,881 $42,431 $26,806 
Earnings per share – basic $0.65 $0.40 $1.68 $1.07 
Earnings per share – diluted $0.64 $0.40 $1.65 $1.06 
Weighted average shares outstanding – basic 24,730 25,296 24,746 25,264 
Weighted average shares outstanding – diluted 25,366 25,535 25,252 25,565 
Dividends declared per share $0.18 $0.12 $0.42 $0.36 
THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THESE UNAUDITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

3


KFORCE INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(IN THOUSANDS)
 
September 30, 2018December 31, 2017
ASSETS 
Current assets: 
Cash and cash equivalents $466 $379 
Trade receivables, net of allowances of $2,644 and $2,333, respectively 237,613 225,865 
Income tax refund receivable 305 7,116 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets 13,620 12,085 
Total current assets 252,004 245,445 
Fixed assets, net 37,011 39,680 
Other assets, net 41,565 38,598 
Deferred tax assets, net 12,066 11,316 
Intangible assets, net 3,038 3,297 
Goodwill 45,968 45,968 
Total assets $391,652 $384,304 
LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY 
Current liabilities: 
Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities $37,766 $34,873 
Accrued payroll costs 48,863 46,886 
Other current liabilities 1,766 1,960 
Income taxes payable 6,445  
Total current liabilities 94,840 83,719 
Long-term debt – credit facility 79,300 116,523 
Long-term debt – other 1,752 2,597 
Other long-term liabilities 51,813 47,188 
Total liabilities 227,705 250,027 
Commitments and contingencies (Note D) 
Stockholders’ equity: 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par; 15,000 shares authorized, none issued and outstanding   
Common stock, $0.01 par; 250,000 shares authorized, 71,544 and 71,494 issued and outstanding, respectively 716 715 
Additional paid-in capital 444,762 437,394 
Accumulated other comprehensive income 907 100 
Retained earnings 225,658 195,143 
Treasury stock, at cost; 45,483 and 45,167 shares, respectively (508,096)(499,075)
Total stockholders’ equity 163,947 134,277 
Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity $391,652 $384,304 
THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THESE UNAUDITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.


4


KFORCE INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF CHANGES IN STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY
(IN THOUSANDS)
 
Common Stock Additional Paid-In Capital Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income Treasury Stock Total Stockholders’ Equity 
Shares Amount Retained Earnings Shares Amount 
Balance, December 31, 2017 71,494 $715 $437,394 $100 $195,143 45,167 $(499,075)$134,277 
Net income — — — — 41,624 — — 41,624 
Cumulative effect of new accounting standard (Note C), net of tax of $63 — — — — (179)— — (179)
Issuance for stock-based compensation and dividends, net of forfeitures 45 1 525 — (526)— —  
Exercise of stock options 5  46 — — 1 (46) 
Stock-based compensation expense — — 6,558 — — — — 6,558 
Employee stock purchase plan — — 239 — — (15)166 405 
Dividends ($0.42 per share) — — — — (10,404)— — (10,404)
Change in fair value of interest rate swap, net of tax of $275 — — — 807 — — — 807 
Repurchases of common stock — — — — — 330 (9,141)(9,141)
Balance, September 30, 2018 71,544 $716 $444,762 $907 $225,658 45,483 $(508,096)$163,947 


THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THESE UNAUDITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

5


KFORCE INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(IN THOUSANDS)
Nine Months Ended September 30, 
20182017
Cash flows from operating activities: 
Net income $41,624 $27,145 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to cash provided by operating activities: 
Deferred income tax provision, net (1,025)3,978 
Provision for bad debts 1,504 896 
Depreciation and amortization 6,246 6,373 
Stock-based compensation expense 6,558 5,667 
Defined benefit pension plans expense 1,366 692 
Loss on deferred compensation plan investments, net 384 339 
Gain on sale of Global's assets  (3,148)
Other 288 745 
(Increase) decrease in operating assets 
Trade receivables, net (13,252)(38,378)
Income tax refund receivable 6,811 (1,721)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets (2,535)(2,071)
Other assets, net 940 (544)
Increase (decrease) in operating liabilities 
Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities 3,647 (1,321)
Accrued payroll costs 4,807 8,506 
Income taxes payable 6,445 265 
Other long-term liabilities 867 (1,774)
Cash provided by operating activities 64,675 5,649 
Cash flows from investing activities: 
Capital expenditures (4,005)(5,424)
Proceeds from sale of Global's assets 1,000 1,000 
Cash used in investing activities (3,005)(4,424)
Cash flows from financing activities: 
Proceeds from credit facility 427,600 887,293 
Payments on credit facility (464,823)(872,740)
Payments on other financing arrangements (1,491)(1,582)
Repurchases of common stock (12,465)(4,226)
Cash dividends (10,404)(9,125)
Proceeds from exercise of stock options  72 
Payments of loan financing fees  (1,696)
Cash used in financing activities (61,583)(2,004)
Change in cash and cash equivalents 87 (779)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period 379 1,482 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period $466 $703 
THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THESE UNAUDITED
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

6


KFORCE INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Note A - Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Unless otherwise noted below, there have been no material changes to the accounting policies presented in Note 1 - “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies” of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, included in Item 8. Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of the 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Basis of Presentation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC regarding interim financial reporting. Accordingly, certain information and footnotes normally required by GAAP for complete financial statements have been condensed or omitted pursuant to those rules and regulations, although Kforce believes that the disclosures made are adequate to make the information not misleading. These unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K. In management’s opinion, the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation. The Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2017 was derived from our audited Consolidated Balance Sheet as of December 31, 2017, as presented in our 2017 Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Our quarterly operating results are affected by the number of billing days in a particular quarter, the seasonality of our clients’ businesses and increased holiday and vacation days taken. In addition, we typically experience an increase in costs in the first quarter of each fiscal year as a result of certain U.S. state and federal employment tax resets, which negatively impacts our gross profit and overall profitability. The results of operations for any interim period may be impacted by these factors and are not necessarily indicative of, nor comparable to, the results of operations for a full year.
Principles of Consolidation
The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of Kforce Inc. and its subsidiaries. All intercompany transactions and balances have been eliminated in consolidation. References in this document to “Kforce,” “the Company,” “we,” “the Firm,” “management,” “our” or “us” refer to Kforce Inc. and its subsidiaries, except where the context indicates otherwise.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. The most important of these estimates and assumptions relate to the following: revenue transaction prices; allowance for doubtful accounts; income taxes; self-insured liabilities for workers’ compensation and health insurance; obligations for pension plans and goodwill and any related impairment. Although these and other estimates and assumptions are based on the best available information, actual results could be materially different from these estimates.
Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share is computed as net income divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding (“WASO”) during the period. WASO excludes unvested shares of restricted stock. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing net income by diluted WASO. Diluted WASO includes the dilutive effect of potentially dilutive securities such as unvested shares of restricted stock using the treasury stock method, except where the effect of including potential common shares would be anti-dilutive.
For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, there were 635 thousand and 505 thousand common stock equivalents included in the diluted WASO, respectively. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, there were 239 thousand and 301 thousand common stock equivalents included in the diluted WASO, respectively. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, there were insignificant anti-dilutive common stock equivalents.
7


New Accounting Standards
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
In May 2014, the FASB issued authoritative guidance regarding revenue from contracts with customers, which specifies that revenue should be recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. The amended guidance (“Topic 606”) is effective for annual and interim reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017. We adopted this new standard effective January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective transition method with a cumulative adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings. The comparative information continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for the period presented ("Topic 605"). Refer to Note C - "Revenue Recognition" for additional accounting policy and transition disclosures.
Accounting Standards Not Yet Adopted
In August 2018, the FASB issued authoritative guidance regarding customer's accounting for implementation costs incurred in a cloud computing arrangement that is a service contract. These amendments align the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software (and hosting arrangements that include an internal-use software license). The guidance is effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2019. We are currently evaluating the potential impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued authoritative guidance regarding changes to the disclosure requirement for defined benefit plans including additions and deletions to certain disclosure requirements for employers that sponsor defined benefit pension or other post-retirement plans. The guidance is effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2020. The adoption of this guidance will modify our disclosures but is not expected to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued authoritative guidance regarding changes to the disclosure requirements for fair value measurement. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the weighted average and range of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. The guidance is effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The adoption of this guidance will modify our disclosures but is not expected to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued authoritative guidance regarding the reclassification of certain stranded tax effects from accumulated other comprehensive income to retained earnings as a result of the change in tax rates related to the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act. The guidance is effective for fiscal periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively. Kforce will adopt on January 1, 2019. This guidance is not expected to have a material impact on the consolidated financial statements.
In August 2017, the FASB issued authoritative guidance targeting improvements to accounting for hedging activities by simplifying the rules around hedge accounting and improving the disclosure requirements. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. The hedge accounting guidance should be implemented using a modified retrospective approach for any hedges that exist on the date of adoption, while the presentation and disclosure requirements must be applied prospectively. The adoption of this guidance will modify our disclosures but is not expected to have a material effect on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued authoritative guidance on accounting for credit losses on financial instruments, including trade receivables. The guidance requires the application of a current expected credit loss model, which measures credit losses based on relevant information about past events, including historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019. The guidance requires companies to apply the requirements using a modified retrospective approach. We are currently evaluating the potential impact on our consolidated financial statements, especially with respect our disclosures.

8


In February 2016, the FASB issued authoritative guidance regarding the accounting for leases, and has since issued subsequent updates to the initial guidance. The guidance requires the recognition of assets and liabilities for operating leases with terms longer than 12 months. The guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018 and we expect to utilize the optional transition method in the period of adoption without retrospective application to previous periods. We continue to make progress with our implementation procedures, including upgrading our lease accounting software, assessing accounting policy elections, evaluating the impact on internal controls and analyzing our vendor contracts to determine the appropriate accounting treatment. While we are continuing to assess the effect of adoption, we currently believe the most significant changes include the recognition of right-of-use assets and lease liabilities on our balance sheets for real estate and office equipment operating leases as well as the related financial statement disclosures.
Note B - Reportable Segments
Kforce provides services through the following segments: (1) Technology (“Tech”); (2) Finance and Accounting (“FA”); and (3) Government Solutions (“GS”). Historically, and for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, we have reported sales and gross profit information on a segment basis. Total assets, liabilities and operating expenses are not reported separately by segment as our operations are largely combined.
For the nine months ended September 30, 2017, our Tech segment has included the results of operations for Kforce Global Solutions, Inc., (“Global”). Kforce completed the sale of Global’s assets during the three months ended September 30, 2017 and this sale did not meet the definition of discontinued operations. Kforce recorded a $3.3 million gain on sale of Global’s assets, which was recorded in Selling, general and administrative expenses within the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
The following table provides information concerning the operations of our segments (in thousands):
Tech FA GS Total 
Three Months Ended September 30, 
2018
Revenue $251,079 $75,505 $28,868 $355,452 
Gross profit $69,522 $26,523 $8,336 $104,381 
Operating expenses 82,762 
Income before income taxes $21,619 
2017
Revenue $229,281 $85,225 $26,547 $341,053 
Gross profit $65,560 $29,709 $9,106 $104,375 
Operating expenses 85,395 
Income before income taxes $18,980 
Nine Months Ended September 30, 
2018
Revenue $737,339 $236,221 $86,809 $1,060,369 
Gross profit $206,700 $82,074 $23,278 $312,052 
Operating expenses 256,342 
Income before income taxes $55,710 
2017
Revenue $679,695 $260,786 $74,873 $1,015,354 
Gross profit $192,223 $89,666 $23,540 $305,429 
Operating expenses 259,224 
Income before income taxes $46,205 


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Note C - Revenue Recognition
We adopted Topic 606 using the modified retrospective transition method for all contracts that were not completed as of January 1, 2018. The cumulative impact of adopting Topic 606 was recorded as a reduction to the opening balance of retained earnings of $0.2 million, net of tax, as of January 1, 2018 with the offset recorded as a contract liability. The adjustment is related to a change in the revenue recognition pattern for the performance obligations under certain GS contracts including standard warranty revenues related to our product business and a contract that provides our customer with a material right to a future discount. As of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements were not materially impacted as a result of the application of Topic 606 compared to Topic 605.
Revenue Recognition
All of our revenue and trade receivables are generated from contracts with customers and substantially all of our revenues are derived from U.S. domestic operations. The following section describes the accounting policies that we believe have significant judgment, or changes in judgment, as a result of adopting Topic 606.
Revenue is recognized when control of the promised goods or services is transferred to our customers at an amount that reflects the consideration to which we expect to be entitled to in exchange for those goods or services. Revenue is recorded net of sales or other transaction taxes collected from clients and remitted to taxing authorities.
For substantially all of our revenue transactions, we have determined that gross reporting of revenues as a principal versus net as an agent is the appropriate accounting treatment because Kforce: (i) is primarily responsible for fulfilling the promise to provide the specified good or service to the customer, (ii) has discretion in selecting and assigning the temporary workers to particular jobs and establishing the bill rate, and (iii) bears the risk and rewards of the transaction, including credit risk if the customer fails to pay for services performed.
Flex Revenue
Flex revenue is recognized over time as temporary staffing services are provided by our consultants at the contractually established bill rates, net of applicable variable consideration. Reimbursements of travel and out-of-pocket expenses ("billable expenses") are also recorded within Flex revenue when incurred and the equivalent amount of expense is recorded in Direct costs in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Certain temporary staffing services are provided under time-and-material and fixed-price arrangements. For time-and-materials contracts, we recognize revenue in the amount of consideration to which we have the right to invoice when it corresponds directly to the services transferred to the customer satisfied over time. For fixed-price contracts, which are most frequently utilized in our GS segment, revenues are recognized over time using the input method based on costs incurred as a proportion of estimated total costs. Incurred costs represent work performed, which corresponds with, and thereby best depicts, the transfer of control to the customer. Management uses significant judgments when estimating the total labor hours expected to complete the contract performance obligation.
Direct Hire Revenue
Direct Hire revenue is recognized at the agreed upon rate at the point in time when the performance obligation is considered complete. Our policy requires the following criteria to be met in order for the performance obligation to be considered complete: (i) the candidate accepted the position; (ii) the candidate resigned from their current employer; and (iii) the agreed upon start date falls within the following month. Since the client has accepted the candidate and can direct the use of and obtains the significant risk and rewards of the placement, we consider this point as the transfer of control to our client.
Product Revenue
Revenue for our product business, which is a component of our GS segment, is recognized after the transfer of control to the customer, which typically occurs upon delivery.

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Variable Consideration
Transaction prices for Flex revenue include variable consideration, such as customer rebates and discounts. Management evaluates the facts and circumstances of each contract to estimate the variable consideration using the most likely amount method which utilizes management’s expectation of the volume of services to be provided over the applicable period. Direct Hire revenue is recorded net of a fallout reserve. Direct Hire fallouts occur when a candidate does not remain employed with the client through the respective contingency period (typically 90 days or less). Management uses the expected value method to estimate the fallout reserve based on a combination of past experience and current trends. Variable consideration reduces revenue, but may be constrained to the extent that it is probable a significant reversal will not occur. These balances are recorded in Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Under Topic 605, the Direct Hire fallout reserve was recorded as a Trade receivables allowance and under Topic 606, it is recorded within Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the Direct Hire fallout reserve was $0.6 million and $0.5 million, respectively.
Payment Terms
Our payment terms and conditions vary by arrangement, although terms are typically less than 90 days. Generally the timing between the satisfaction of the performance obligation and the payment is not significant and we currently do not have any significant financing components.
Cost of Services
Direct costs are composed of all related costs of employment for consultants, including compensation, payroll taxes, certain fringe benefits and subcontractor costs. Direct costs exclude depreciation and amortization expense (except for the product business), which is presented on a separate line in the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
Associate and field management compensation, payroll taxes and fringe benefits are included in selling, general and administrative expenses (“SG&A”), along with other customary costs such as administrative and corporate costs. We generally expense sales commissions and any other incremental costs of obtaining a contract as incurred because the amortization period would be less than one year.
Unsatisfied Performance Obligations
We do not disclose the value of unsatisfied performance obligations for contracts if either the original expected length is one year or less or if revenue is recognized at the amount to which we have the right to invoice for services performed.

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Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table provides information about disaggregated revenue by segment and revenue type for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 (in thousands):
Tech FA GS Total 
Three Months Ended September 30, 
2018
Revenue by type: 
Flex revenue $247,154 $68,948 $23,835 $339,937 
Direct Hire revenue 3,925 6,557  10,482 
Product revenue   5,033 5,033 
Total Revenue $251,079 $75,505 $28,868 $355,452 
2017
Revenue by type: 
Flex revenue $224,148 $78,209 $23,978 $326,335 
Direct Hire revenue 5,133 7,016  12,149 
Product revenue   2,569 2,569 
Total Revenue $229,281 $85,225 $26,547 $341,053 
Nine Months Ended September 30, 
2018
Revenue by type: 
Flex revenue $723,159 $215,988 $75,712 $1,014,859 
Direct Hire revenue 14,180 20,233  34,413 
Product revenue   11,097 11,097 
Total Revenue $737,339 $236,221 $86,809 $1,060,369 
2017
Revenue by type: 
Flex revenue $663,778 $239,196 $66,708 $969,682 
Direct Hire revenue 15,917 21,590  37,507 
Product revenue   8,165 8,165 
Total Revenue $679,695 $260,786 $74,873 $1,015,354 
GS Flex revenue includes 42.0% and 41.6% of revenue recognized from fixed-price contracts for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively. GS Flex revenue includes 35.8% and 32.0% of revenue recognized from fixed-price contracts for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017, respectively.
Contract Balances
We record accounts receivable when our right to consideration becomes unconditional. Other than our trade receivable balance, we do not have any material contract assets as of January 1, 2018 and September 30, 2018.
We record a contract liability when we receive consideration from a customer prior to transferring goods or services to the customer or if we have an unconditional right and services have been performed. We recognize the contract liability as revenue after we have transferred control of the goods or services to the customer. Contract liabilities are recorded within Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities if expected to be recognized in less than one year and Other long-term liabilities, if over one year, in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. We do not have any material contract liabilities as of January 1, 2018 and September 30, 2018.

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Note D - Commitments and Contingencies
Employment Agreements
Kforce has employment agreements with certain executives that provide for minimum compensation, salary and continuation of certain benefits for a six-month to a three-year period after their employment ends under certain circumstances. Certain of the agreements also provide for a severance payment ranging from one to three times annual salary and one-half to three times average annual bonus if such an agreement is terminated without good cause by Kforce or for good reason by the executive subject to certain post-employment restrictive covenants. At September 30, 2018, our liability would be approximately $32.4 million if, following a change in control, all of the executives under contract were terminated without good cause by the employer or if the executives resigned for good reason and $13.4 million if, in the absence of a change in control, all of the executives under contract were terminated by Kforce without good cause or if the executives resigned for good reason.
Litigation
We are involved in legal proceedings, claims and administrative matters that arise in the ordinary course of business. We have made accruals with respect to certain of these matters, where appropriate, that are reflected in our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements but are not, individually or in the aggregate, considered material. For other matters for which an accrual has not been made, we have not yet determined that a loss is probable or the amount of loss cannot be reasonably estimated. While the ultimate outcome of the matters cannot be determined, we currently do not expect that these proceedings and claims, individually or in the aggregate, will have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. The outcome of any litigation is inherently uncertain, however, and if decided adversely to us, or if we determine that settlement of particular litigation is appropriate, we may be subject to liability that could have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Kforce maintains liability insurance in amounts and with such coverage and deductibles as management believes is reasonable. The principal liability risks that Kforce insures against are workers’ compensation, personal injury, bodily injury, property damage, directors’ and officers’ liability, errors and omissions, cyber liability, employment practices liability and fidelity losses. There can be no assurance that Kforce’s liability insurance will cover all events or that the limits of coverage will be sufficient to fully cover all liabilities.  
Note E - Accounts Payable and Other Accrued Liabilities
Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities consisted of the following (in thousands):
September 30, 2018December 31, 2017
Accounts payable $24,347 $21,591 
Accrued liabilities 13,419 13,282 
Total Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities $37,766 $34,873 
Our accounts payable balance includes vendor and independent contractor payables. Our accrued liabilities balance includes the current portion of the deferred compensation plans liability, contract liabilities from contracts with customers (such as rebates) and other accrued liabilities.
Note F - Accrued Payroll Costs
Accrued payroll costs consisted of the following (in thousands):
September 30, 2018December 31, 2017
Payroll and benefits $42,721 $37,788 
Health insurance liabilities 3,265 2,596 
Payroll taxes 1,861 5,270 
Workers’ compensation liabilities 1,016 1,232 
Total Accrued payroll costs $48,863 $46,886 


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Note G - Credit Facility
On May 25, 2017, the Firm entered into a credit agreement with Wells Fargo Bank, National Association, as administrative agent, Wells Fargo Securities, LLC, as lead arranger and bookrunner, Bank of America, N.A., as syndication agent, Regions Bank and BMO Harris Bank, N.A., as co-documentation agents, and the lenders referred to therein (the “Credit Facility”). Under the Credit Facility, the Firm has a maximum borrowing capacity of $300.0 million, which may, subject to certain conditions and the participation of the lenders, be increased up to an aggregate additional amount of $150.0 million (the “Commitment”), which will be available to the Firm in the form of revolving credit loans, swingline loans and letters of credit. Letters of credit and swingline loans under the Credit Facility are subject to sublimits of $10.0 million. The maturity date of the Credit Facility is May 25, 2022. Borrowings under the Credit Facility are secured by substantially all of the tangible and intangible assets of the Firm, excluding the Firm’s corporate headquarters and certain other designated executed collateral.
Revolving credit loans under the Credit Facility bear interest at a rate equal to (a) the Base Rate (as described below) plus the Applicable Margin (as described below) or (b) the LIBOR Rate plus the Applicable Margin. Swingline loans under the Credit Facility bear interest at a rate equal to the Base Rate plus the Applicable Margin. The Base Rate is the highest of: (i) the Wells Fargo Bank, National Association prime rate, (ii) the federal funds rate plus 0.50% or (iii) one-month LIBOR plus 1.00%, and the LIBOR Rate is reserve-adjusted LIBOR for the applicable interest period, but not less than zero. The Applicable Margin is based on the Firm’s total leverage ratio. The Applicable Margin for Base Rate loans ranges from 0.25% to 0.75% and the Applicable Margin for LIBOR Rate loans ranges from 1.25% to 1.75%. The Firm will pay a quarterly non-refundable commitment fee equal to the Applicable Margin on the average daily unused portion of the Commitment (swingline loans do not constitute usage for this purpose). The Applicable Margin for the commitment fee is based on the Firm’s total leverage ratio and ranges between 0.20% and 0.35%.
The Firm is subject to certain affirmative and negative covenants including (but not limited to), the maintenance of a fixed charge coverage ratio of no less than 1.25 to 1.00 and the maintenance of a total leverage ratio of no greater than 3.25 to 1.00. The numerator in the fixed charge coverage ratio is defined pursuant to the Credit Facility as earnings before interest expense, income taxes, depreciation and amortization, stock-based compensation expense and other permitted items pursuant to our Credit Facility (disclosed as “Consolidated EBITDA”), less cash paid for capital expenditures, income taxes and dividends. The denominator is defined as Kforce’s fixed charges such as interest expense and principal payments paid or payable on outstanding debt other than borrowings under the Credit Facility. The total leverage ratio is defined pursuant to the Credit Facility as total indebtedness divided by Consolidated EBITDA. Our ability to make distributions or repurchases of equity securities could be limited if an event of default has occurred. Furthermore, our ability to repurchase equity securities could be limited if (a) the total leverage ratio is greater than 2.75 to 1.00 and (b) the Firm’s availability, inclusive of unrestricted cash, is less than $25.0 million. As of September 30, 2018, Kforce was not limited in making distributions and executing repurchases of our equity securities.
As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, $79.3 million and $116.5 million was outstanding, respectively. Kforce had $3.2 million of outstanding letters of credit at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 which, pursuant to the Credit Facility, reduces the availability.
Note H - Employee Benefit Plans
Deferred Compensation Plans
The Firm maintains various non-qualified deferred compensation plans, pursuant to which eligible management and highly compensated key employees, as defined by IRS regulations, may elect to defer all or part of their compensation to later years. These amounts are classified in Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities if payable within the next year or in Other long-term liabilities if payable after the next year or upon retirement or termination of employment in the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. At September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, amounts related to the deferred compensation plans included in Accounts payable and other accrued liabilities were $2.3 million and $2.9 million, respectively, and $31.8 million and $28.9 million were included in Other long-term liabilities, respectively, in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Kforce maintains a Rabbi Trust and holds life insurance policies on certain individuals to assist in the funding of the deferred compensation liability. If necessary, employee distributions are funded through proceeds from the sale of assets held within the Rabbi Trust. The balance of the assets within the Rabbi Trust, including the cash surrender value of the Company-owned life insurance policies, was $33.4 million and $31.4 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, and is included in Other assets, net in the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
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Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan
Kforce maintains a Supplemental Executive Retirement Plan (“SERP”) for the benefit of certain executive officers. The primary goals of the SERP are to create an additional wealth accumulation opportunity, restore lost qualified pension benefits due to government limitations and retain our covered executive officers. The SERP is a non-qualified benefit plan and does not include elective deferrals of covered executive officers’ compensation.
The following table presents the components of net periodic benefit cost (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30, 
2018201720182017
Service cost $338 $79 $1,014 $239 
Interest cost 117 134 351 403 
Net periodic benefit cost $455 $213 $1,365 $642 
The service cost is recorded in SG&A and the interest cost is recorded in Other expense, net in the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income.
The projected benefit obligation as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was $15.8 million and $14.4 million, respectively, and is recorded in Other long-term liabilities in the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. There is no requirement for Kforce to fund the SERP and, as a result, no contributions were made to the SERP during the nine months ended September 30, 2018. Kforce does not currently anticipate funding the SERP during the year ended December 31, 2018.
Note I - Stock Incentive Plans
On April 18, 2017, the Kforce shareholders approved the 2017 Stock Incentive Plan (“2017 Plan”). The 2017 Plan allows for the issuance of stock options, stock appreciation rights, stock awards (including restricted stock awards (“RSAs”) and restricted stock units (“RSUs”)) and other stock-based awards. The aggregate number of shares of common stock that are subject to awards under the 2017 Plan is approximately 3.0 million shares. The 2017 Plan terminates on April 18, 2027. Prior to the effective date of the 2017 Plan, the Company granted stock awards to eligible participants under our 2016 Stock Incentive Plan and 2013 Stock Incentive Plan (collectively the “Prior Plans”). As of the effective date of the 2017 Plan, no additional awards may be granted pursuant to the Prior Plans; however, awards outstanding as of the effective date will continue to vest in accordance with the terms of the Prior Plans.
During the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, stock-based compensation expense was $2.0 million and $1.8 million, respectively. During the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, stock-based compensation expense was $6.6 million and $5.7 million, respectively.
Restricted Stock
Restricted stock (including RSAs and RSUs) are granted to executives and management either: for awards related to Kforce’s annual long-term incentive (“LTI”) compensation program or as part of a compensation package in order to retain directors, executives and management. The LTI award amounts are generally based on total shareholder return performance goals. Restricted stock granted during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 will vest over a period between one to ten years, with equal vesting annually.
RSAs contain the same voting rights as other common stock as well as the right to forfeitable dividends in the form of additional RSAs at the same rate as the cash dividend on common stock and containing the same vesting provisions as the underlying award. RSUs contain no voting rights, but have the right to forfeitable dividend equivalents in the form of additional RSUs at the same rate as the cash dividend on common stock and containing the same vesting provisions as the underlying award. The distribution of shares of common stock for each RSU, pursuant to the terms of the Kforce Inc. Director’s Restricted Stock Unit Deferral Plan, can be deferred to a date later than the vesting date if an appropriate election was made. In the event of such deferral, vested RSUs have the right to dividend equivalents.

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The following table presents the restricted stock activity for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 (in thousands, except per share amounts):
Number of Restricted Stock Weighted Average
Grant Date
Fair Value 
Total Intrinsic
Value of Restricted
Stock Vested 
Outstanding at December 31, 20171,355 $22.67 
Granted 135 $27.37 
Forfeited (90)$22.81 
Vested (79)$23.26 $2,654 
Outstanding at September 30, 20181,321 $23.23 
As of September 30, 2018, total unrecognized stock compensation expense related to restricted stock was $22.4 million, which will be recognized over a weighted average remaining period of 4.0 years.
Note J - Derivative Instrument and Hedging Activity
Kforce is exposed to interest rate risk as a result of our corporate borrowing activities. The Firm uses an interest rate swap derivative as a risk management tool to mitigate the potential impact of rising interest rates on our variable rate debt.
On April 21, 2017, Kforce entered into a forward-starting interest rate swap agreement with Wells Fargo Bank, N.A. (the “Swap”). The Swap was effective May 31, 2017 and matures April 29, 2022. The Swap rate is 1.81%, which is added to our interest rate margin to determine the fixed rate that the Firm will pay to the counterparty during the term of the Swap based on the notional amount of the Swap. The notional amount of the Swap is $65.0 million for the first three years and decreases to $25.0 million for years four and five.
The Swap has been designated as a cash flow hedge and was effective as of September 30, 2018. The change in the fair value of the Swap was recorded as a component of Accumulated other comprehensive income in the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the fair value of the Swap asset was $1.6 million and $0.5 million, respectively.
Note K - Fair Value Measurements
Kforce’s interest rate swap is measured at fair value using readily observable inputs, such as the LIBOR interest rate, which are considered to be Level 2 inputs. The Swap is recorded in Other assets, net within the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. Refer to Note J - “Derivative Instrument and Hedging Activity” for a complete discussion of the Firm’s derivative instrument.
Our contingent consideration liability relates to a non-significant business acquisition within our GS segment, which is measured on a recurring basis and recorded at fair value, using the discounted cash flow method. The inputs used to calculate the fair value of the contingent consideration liability are considered to be Level 3 inputs due to the lack of relevant market activity and significant management judgment. An increase in future cash flows may result in a higher estimated fair value while a decrease in future cash flows may result in a lower estimated fair value of the contingent consideration liability. Remeasurements to fair value are recorded in Other expense, net within the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income. There was no activity in our recurring Level 3 fair value measurements for the nine months ended September 30, 2018. The contingent consideration liability is recorded in Other long-term liabilities within the accompanying Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Certain assets, in specific circumstances, are measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis utilizing Level 3 inputs such as goodwill, other intangible assets and other long-lived assets. For these assets, measurement at fair value in periods subsequent to their initial recognition would be applicable if one or more of these assets were determined to be impaired.

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The following table sets forth by level, within the fair value hierarchy, estimated fair values on a recurring basis at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017 (in thousands):
Assets/(Liabilities) Measured at Fair Value: Asset/(Liability) Quoted Prices in
Active Markets
for Identical
Assets (Level 1) 
Significant
Other
Observable
Inputs (Level 2) 
Significant
Unobservable
Inputs (Level 3) 
At September 30, 2018
Recurring basis: 
Interest rate swap derivative instrument $1,561 $ $1,561 $ 
Contingent consideration liability $(191)$ $ $(191)
At December 31, 2017
Recurring basis: 
Interest rate swap derivative instrument $479 $ $479 $ 
Contingent consideration liability $(191)$ $ $(191)
There were no transfers into or out of Level 1, 2 or 3 assets or liabilities during the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
Note L - Supplemental Cash Flow Information
The following table provides information regarding supplemental cash flows (in thousands):
Nine Months Ended September 30, 
20182017
Cash Paid During the Period For: 
Income taxes $8,583 $15,204 
Interest, net $3,132 $2,714 
Non-Cash Financing and Investing Transactions: 
Employee stock purchase plan $405 $399 
Equipment acquired under capital leases $424 $465 
Shares tendered in payment of exercise price of stock options $46 $ 
Receivable for sale of Global's assets $ $1,979 
During the nine months ended September 30, 2018, cash provided by operating activities included the receipt of an income tax refund in the amount of $6.8 million. Our effective tax rate for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 was positively impacted by the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("TCJA").

ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations is intended to help the reader understand Kforce Inc., our operations and present business environment. This MD&A should be read in conjunction with Item 1. Financial Statements of this report on Form 10-Q. This overview summarizes the MD&A, which includes:
Executive Summary An executive summary of our results of operations as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
Results of Operations – An analysis of Kforce’s unaudited consolidated results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, which have been presented in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. In order to assist the reader in understanding our business as a whole, certain metrics are presented for each of our segments.
Liquidity and Capital Resources – An analysis of cash flows, credit facility, stock repurchases, off-balance sheet arrangements and contractual obligations and commitments.
Critical Accounting Estimates – A discussion of the accounting estimates that are most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results and that require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments.
New Accounting Standards – A discussion of recently issued accounting standards and the potential impact on our consolidated financial statements.
17


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The following is an executive summary of what Kforce believes are highlights as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, which should be considered in the context of the additional discussions herein and in conjunction with the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and notes thereto.
• Revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 increased 4.4% to $1.1 billion from $1.0 billion in the comparable period in 2017.
• Flex revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 increased 4.7% over the comparable period in 2017. Flex revenue increased 8.9% and 13.5% for Tech and GS, respectively, and decreased 9.7% for FA. The year-over-year growth rate in our largest line of business, Tech Flex, increased to 10.3% in the third quarter of 2018 from 9.8% in the second quarter of 2018.
• Direct Hire revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 decreased 8.2% to $34.4 million from $37.5 million in the comparable period in 2017 due to volatility and sensitivity to economic cycles in the markets we selectively invest in.
• Flex gross profit margin for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 decreased 40 basis points to 26.7% from 27.1% in the comparable period in 2017. For the nine months ended September 30, 2018, Flex gross profit remained flat for Tech; increased 10 basis points for FA; and decreased 580 basis points for GS. Our GS business is operating in a cost competitive environment and, as such, has experienced reduced profitability in certain of its larger contracts.
• SG&A expenses as a percentage of revenue for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 decreased to 23.3% from 24.5% in the comparable period in 2017. The 120 basis point decrease was primarily a result of increased leverage as a result of enhancements to our performance-based compensation plans; improved productivity of our associates; lower revenue-generating headcount; reduced costs as a result of previous realignment activities; and a continued focus on expense discipline.
• Net income for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 increased 53.3% to $41.6 million from $27.1 million in the comparable period in 2017 driven by the factors noted above as well as the reduction in our effective tax rate due to the enactment of the TCJA.
• Diluted earnings per share for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 increased to $1.65 per share from $1.06 per share in the comparable period in 2017 driven primarily by the factors noted above.
• During the third quarter of 2018, our Board of Directors approved a 50% increase to the quarterly dividend, bringing it to $0.18 per share. The Firm declared and paid quarterly dividends totaling $0.42 per share during the nine months ended September 30, 2018, resulting in a total cash payout of $10.4 million. 
• The total amount outstanding under our Credit Facility as of September 30, 2018 was $79.3 million, which decreased $21.3 million and $37.2 million from June 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively.
• Cash provided by operating activities was $64.7 million during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 compared to $5.6 million in the nine months ended September 30, 2017 primarily due to increasing levels of profitability and improved collections of our accounts receivable.


18


RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Business Overview
Kforce provides professional staffing services and solutions to clients through our Tech, FA and GS segments. Kforce provides staffing services and solutions on both a temporary (“Flex”) and permanent (“Direct Hire”) basis. We operate through our corporate headquarters in Tampa, Florida with approximately 60 field offices located throughout the United States. As of September 30, 2018, Kforce employed nearly 2,400 associates and more than 11,000 consultants on assignment.
Kforce serves clients across many industries and geographies as well as companies of all sizes with a particular focus on Fortune 1000 and similarly-sized companies. We also provide services and solutions to the Federal Government as well as state and local governments, as a prime contractor and subcontractor. We believe that our portfolio of service offerings, which are focused in Tech and FA (areas of expected growth), are a key contributor to our long-term financial stability.
From an economic standpoint, temporary employment figures and trends are important indicators of staffing demand, which continued to be positive during 2018, based on data published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics and Staffing Industry Analysts. The penetration rate (the percentage of temporary staffing to total employment) and unemployment rate was 2.05% and 3.7%, respectively, in September 2018. Total non-farm employment was up 1.7% year-over-year as of September 2018, and temporary help employment was up 2.9% for the same period. In addition, the college-level unemployment rate, which we believe serves as a proxy for professional employment and therefore aligns well with the candidate and consultant population that Kforce most typically serves, was 2.0% in September 2018. Further, we believe that the unemployment rate in the specialties we serve, especially in certain technology skill sets, is lower than the published averages, which we believe speaks to the demand environment in which we are operating.
Operating Results - Three and Nine Months Ended September 30, 2018 and 2017
In order to align the discussion of our Operating Results with Note C - “Revenue Recognition” in the Notes to the Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included in Item 1. Financial Statements of this report, we have disaggregated our GS product business and modified the presentation to exclude it from Flex revenue and Flex gross profit. Prior periods have been adjusted to align with the current presentation.
The following table presents, as a percentage of revenue, certain items in our Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Income:
Three Months Ended Nine Months Ended 
September 30, September 30, 
2018201720182017
Revenue by segment: 
Tech 70.6 %67.2 %69.5 %66.9 %
FA 21.2  25.0  22.3  25.7  
GS 8.2  7.8  8.2  7.4  
Total Revenue 100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Revenue by type: 
Flex 95.6 %95.7 %95.7 %95.5 %
Direct Hire 3.0  3.6  3.3  3.7  
Product 1.4  0.7  1.0  0.8  
Total Revenue 100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Gross profit 29.4 %30.6 %29.4 %30.1 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses 22.4 %24.0 %23.3 %24.5 %
Depreciation and amortization 0.5 %0.6 %0.6 %0.6 %
Income from operations 6.4 %6.0 %5.6 %4.9 %
Income before income taxes 6.1 %5.6 %5.3 %4.6 %
Net income 4.6 %3.0 %3.9 %2.7 %
19


Revenue. The following table presents revenue by type for each segment and the percentage change from the prior period (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30, Nine Months Ended September 30, 
2018Increase
(Decrease) 
20172018Increase
(Decrease) 
2017
Tech 
Flex revenue $247,154 10.3 %$224,148 $723,159 8.9 %$663,778 
Direct Hire revenue 3,925 (23.5)%5,133 14,180 (10.9)%15,917 
Total Tech revenue $251,079 9.5 %$229,281 $737,339 8.5 %$679,695 
FA 
Flex revenue $68,948 (11.8)%$78,209 $215,988 (9.7)%$239,196 
Direct Hire revenue 6,557 (6.5)%7,016 20,233 (6.3)%21,590 
Total FA revenue $75,505 (11.4)%$85,225 $236,221 (9.4)%$260,786 
GS 
Flex revenue $23,835 (0.6)%$23,978 $75,712 13.5 %$66,708 
Product revenue 5,033 95.9 %2,569 11,097 35.9 %8,165 
Total GS revenue $28,868 8.7 %$26,547 $86,809 15.9 %$74,873 
Total Flex revenue $339,937 4.2 %$326,335 $1,014,859 4.7 %$969,682 
Total Direct Hire revenue 10,482 (13.7)%12,149 34,413 (8.2)%37,507 
Total Product revenue 5,033 95.9 %2,569 11,097 35.9 %8,165 
Total Revenue $355,452 4.2 %$341,053 $1,060,369 4.4 %$1,015,354 
Our quarterly operating results are affected by the number of billing days in a quarter. The following table presents the year-over-year revenue growth rates, on a billing day basis, for the last five quarters:
Year-Over-Year Revenue Growth Rates 
(Per Billing Day) 
Q3 2018Q2 2018Q1 2018Q4 2017Q3 2017
Billing Days63 64 64 61 63 
Tech Flex10.3 %9.8 %6.7 %5.4 %3.3 %
FA Flex(11.8)%(9.4)%(7.9)%0.3 %